Course Number : BA (BS) – 322
Credit Hours: 03


The fundamental objective of this course is to provide exposition about the Enlightenment Thought. The Age of Enlightenment in Europe is considered to be a cultural movement of intellectuals beginning in late 17th and 18th century emphasizing reason and individualism rather
than tradition. Pre–enlightenment period and the rise of enlightenment to its critique will be discussed in the course.

Course Contents

    1. Introduction
    2. What is Enlightenment? – A critical perspective.
    3. Difference between Classical Period and Dark Ages
    4. Why religious domain is not considered to be enlightenment?
    5. Religious Institutionalization
    6. Discursive Practices
    7. Protestantization of Christianity
    8. Scottish Enlightenment
    9. Humanism
    10. Romanticism
    11. Cartesian Meditations
    12. Deception (Meditations)
    13. Modernism

      13.1. Anthropocentricity
               13.1.1. Individualism
               13.1.2. Collectivism
      13.2. Freedom
               13.2.1. Individualistic
               13.2.2. Collectivistic
      13.3. Rationality
               13.3.1. Static
               13.3.2. Dialectic
    14. Freedom (Humanism)
    15. Liberty and Commerce
    16. Knowledge and Freedom
    17. Post Colonialism
    18. Philosophy of History (Georg Hegel)
    19. Philosophy of History (Karl Marx)
    20. Philosophy of History (Immanuel Kant)
    21. Philosophy of History (Socrates)
    22. Philosophy of History (Plato)
    23. Philosophy of History (Aristotle)
    24. Philosophy of History (Augustine)
    25. Philosophy of History (Machiavelli)
    26. Philosophy of History (Hobbes)

Recommended Books

  1. J. M. Beach, (2010). What is Enlightenment? A History & Sociology of KnowledgeSouthwest Press, Create Space Independent Publishing Platform.
  2. René Descartes, (1996). Meditations on First Philosophy: Cambridge University Press,Cambridge.
  3. Samuel Fleischacker, (2013). What is Enlightenment? 1st Edition, Routledge Publisher.
  4. Immanuel Kant.(2015). What is Enlightenment?, The Perfect Library Publishers.
  5. Immanuel Kant, (2013). A Critique of Pure Reason, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
  6. G. W. F. Hegel and A. V. Miller, (1976). Phenomenology of Spirit, New Edition, Oxford University Press.
  7. G. W. F. Hegel, (2004). The Philosophy of History, Reissue Edition, Dover Publications.
  8. R. G. Collingwood, Jan van der Dussen, (1994). The Idea of History, Revised Edition, Oxford University Press.
  9. Michel Foucault, (1984).What is Enlightenment? & Madness, The Absence of WorkPantheon Publisher.
  10. John Gray, (2007). Enlightenment’s Wake: Politics and Culture at the Close of the Modern Age, 1st Edition, Routledge Publishers.
  11. Anthony Pagden, (2013). The Enlightenment, 1st Edition, Random HousePublisher.
  12. Aristophanes, (2000). Clouds,Hackett Publishing Company, Inc.
  13. Plato, (2008). The Republic, Oxford University Press.
  14. Aristotle, (2013). The Politics, 2nd Edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  15. Machiavelli, (2008). The Prince, 1st Edition, Oxford University Press.
  16. Hobbes, (2008). Leviathan, Reissue Edition, Oxford University Press.