Course Number : BA (BS) – 641
Credit Hours: 03


The quality of business decisions depends to a great extent on the information available to the decisions maker. It is the function of business research to provide information for this decision– making. The main purpose of this course is to provide business decision makers with an understanding of research methods. The focus of this course is the need for business research and major emphasis will be on workshop session, fieldwork and case studies also the preparation of a research report.

Course Contents

    1. The Role of Business Research
      1.1. Definition of Research
      1.2. Business Research
      1.3. Structure of Decision Making
      1.4. Level of Decision Making
      1.5. Decision Making Process
      1.6. Manager Researcher Relationship
    2. Scientific Inquiry
      2.1. Overview
      2.2. Definitions and Terminologies Used in Research
      2.3. Methods of Theory Construction
      2.4. Model Based Theory
      2.5. Deductive Theory
      2.6. Functional Theory
      2.7. Induction Theory
      2.8. Relevance of Science in Business Research
      2.9. Scientific Methods
    3. Beginning the Research Process
      3.1. Business Research Processes
      3.2. Problem Identification and Formulation
      3.3. The Research Problem Development Process
      3.4. Methods of Calculation of Research Cost and it Worth
    4. Research Proposal Development and Evaluation
      4.1. Overview
      4.2. Types of Research Proposal
      4.3. Research Proposal Importance for Manager and Researcher
      4.4. Letter of Request
      4.5. Letter of Transmittal
      4.6. Title
      4.7. Background
      4.8. Problem Statement
      4.9. Objectives
      4.10. Research Strategy and Method
      4.11. Nature of the Final Report
      4.12. Budget and Time Schedule
      4.13. Research Proposal Evaluation
    5. Fundamentals of Research Design
      5.1. The Nature of Research Design
      5.2. Error Reduction Through Research Design
      5.3. Material Sources of Error in the Research Design Process
      5.4. Managerial Strategies for Dealing with Error
      5.5. Major Types of Design
      5.6. Ex–Post Facto Design
      5.7. Experimental Design
      5.8. Validity Concerns
      5.9. Managerial Considerations
    6. Foundations of Measurement
      6.1. The Nature of Measurement
      6.2. Components of Measurement
      6.3. The Measurement Process
      6.4. Levels of Measurement
      6.5. Nominal
      6.6. Ordinal
      6.7. Interval Evaluation of Measurement Scales
      6.8. Validity and Reliability
    7. Attitude Measurement
      7.1. Attitude Measurement
      7.2. Attitude Defined
      7.3. Attitude as a Hypothetical Construct
      7.4. Techniques for Measuring Attitudes
      7.5. Attitude Rating Scales
      7.6. Ranking
      7.7. Sorting
      7.8. Other Methods of Attitude Measurement
      7.9. Selecting a Measurement Scale
      7.10. Some Practical Decisions
    8. Primary Data Collection
      8.1. The Nature of Primary Data Collection
      8.2. Personal Interviewing
      8.3. Telephone Interviewing
      8.4. Mail Interviewing
      8.5. A Comparison of Data Collection Methods
    9. Secondary Data Collection
      9.1. Secondary Data in Business Research
      9.2. Uses of Secondary Data
      9.3. Research Strategy
      9.4. Literature Cited
      9.5. Expert Interviews
      9.6. Case Studies
    10. Questionnaire Design
      10.1. Importance
      10.2. Phrasing
      10.3. Response Format
      10.4. Pre–Testing
      10.5. Don’ts of a Questionnaire
    11. Sampling Design
      11.1. Terminologies and Definitions
      11.2. Steps in Sampling Process
      11.3. Sample Designs
      11.4. Probability Designs
      11.5. Unknown Probability Designs
      11.6. Sample Size Calculations
      11.7. Types of Sampling
    12. Observation Method
      12.1. Field Work
      12.2. Editing and Coding
      12.3. Data Analysis
      12.4. Communicating Research Results

Recommended Books

  1. Cooper, & Donald, R. (2001). Business Research Methods. Burr Ridge: McGraw–Hill.
  2. Khan, M. A. (2007). Research Methods for Business Organization & Social Institutions Lahore: Rahber Publishers.
  3. Ross, & Sheldon, M. (1997). A First Course in Probability. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  4. Sudinan, & Symour, A. (1998). Applied Sampling. New York: Academic Press.
  5. Warwick, Donald, R. and Charles A. L. (2001). The Sample Survey: Theory and PracticeNew York: McGraw–Hill.
  6. Zikmund W. G. (2004). Business Research Methods. Edinburgh: The Dryden Press.